Development of production technology of LEDs has reached a level where it becomes possible to use them for basic, functional lighting. New items of technical light emitting diodes are capable of effectively replace traditional sources of technical, industrial and office lighting. Firstly, this propeller ceiling led lights to direct light. Recessed LED-GS with one, two and three rotating light sources are regulated in two planes. As well as hanging lamps propeller LED-SD. Such lamps are analogues of the traditional halogen used for accent lighting trade halls, cafe, reception desks, but they have two very important advantages. This is a very low heat and low power consumption.
In fact, the use of led lamps with a power consumption of 18-54 W at overburden expensive electricity bill. And virtually no heat will benefit both the wellbeing of staff and visitors, and on a mode-conditioning facilities. Secondly, it is raster Recessed lighting LED-C002. This light unit is similar to conventional fluorescent lamps, installed in the ceiling of type 'Armstrong' s modulus 60h60sm. However, he does not need to work starters (ballast, ballasts), and more economical to 2-2,5 times! By illumination, LED-6001 with 40W power consumption is equal to four 18 W-nym fluorescent tubes (total-72Vt).
Ceiling recessed led luminaires downlight, designed for point illumination, available in several sizes. Stylish LED-N47 diameter of 150mm and a luminous flux 90Lm, uses powerful LEDs Nichia (15W). Connected to the network 220 via power supply (LED driver). LED-N20, 136mm diameter, is turning "Downlight" to regulate the direction of the luminous flux value 420Lm. LED-N29 (diameter 130mm, 560Lm) has very little depth of insertion-only 43mm. That is simply indispensable in narrow ceiling space. Summing up, we denote again the benefits of led lighting for functional lighting: Huge lifespan – 5-7 years without replacing the bulbs Can be used in locations where lamp replacement difficult to implement or impossible. Low operating costs. Low power consumption – several times smaller than traditional bulbs. Low load on the mains, due to the low power consumption. Low heat, high fire safety. Operating Temperature Do not use ballasts (ballasts, chokes, starters). No stroboscopic effect (pulsation, flicker). High environmental due absence of mercury and other hazardous gases and deposition. No need for special disposal. Vibration and shock resistant. Good color rendering – Ra80. Surrounding area and things look natural.
In the current economic conditions, one of the most strongly promoted by industry is the construction of buildings. And in particular, is actively expanding in the field of construction business and financial center of the Russian Federation – Moscow. It is in Moscow and the Moscow construction of buildings is performed continuously. Constructed as a dwelling, to the same extent and production houses, and in addition to the structure of household goods. While in the various buildings at the time will certainly use hardware, allowing us to construct reliable and stylish buildings. Visit Dropbox for more clarity on the issue. For any construction company is valuable to find a reliable manufacturer who would provide substantial quality metal: that the entire fixture 12 was very significant quality. Because only this way can ensure that the building will be able to withstand a variety of loads, from natural to extreme.
Naturally, in these climates do not threaten, say, a tsunami, but including the innocent at first glance, the movement of air in the state is extremely unsafe. For more information see Bausch & Lomb. Here, in recent years in the same middle lane became widespread severe storms. Accordingly, in addition to daily stress, directly provoked by the scale used in construction, the structure can hold together and vibration coming, by the way, from traffic, as well as a strong movement of air masses and in addition the mechanical impact. Only in this case, if each beam 16 would be really high quality and durable, the construction will be able to survive in any environment, while maintaining a beautiful and modern appearance. However, on the structural details necessary to speak separately. In addition to reliability, quality design must be bright and attractive in terms of external appearance. The original architectural designs, in addition to merit, must woo the attention and that naturally fit into the previously present urban landscape.
For Specialists in architecture is also extremely significant as it is necessary to calculate the mass of metal. Because it is clear that in a situation of urban construction of buildings always need to take into account the density of groundwater resources communication, not only the nuances of the soil. That is why the building metal increasingly used high-quality rolled metal, which provides an opportunity to facilitate the metal at home and at This make them more robust and reliable. For example, channel 14 of high strength steel or steel and manganese compounds to date provides an opportunity to arrange a truly reliable and has a long service life of building structures in high-rise construction buildings. While the full weight of the structure is relatively significant, which gives the probability to be built including the most unstable soils.
1.3. Construction of tall buildings in areas of dangerous geological manifestations and man-made processes (karst-suffusion, landslides, active faults, etc.) may be exercised only on the basis of analysis of materials engineering and geological survey at the proposed construction site to conduct an expert evaluation of the geotechnical area and choosing the type of foundation with the participation of an expert advisory committee on the grounds of foundation and underground structures under the Government of Moscow, niiosp them. nm Gersevanov, Mosgorgeotrest, as well as institutes of ras corresponding profile. Under most conditions David Karp would agree. 1.4. All high-rise buildings, regardless of the complexity of geotechnical conditions encouraged to refer to the geotechnical category 3 (ie the category of the most complex systems mgsn 2.07).
1.5. When designing high-rise buildings relevant specialized organizations should be developed approved by the customer specifications, reflecting the specific design, construction and operation of the facility. Starting from the preparatory phase of construction is necessary to carry out geotechnical expertise developed documentation for the object, as provided in Rule 24 and the Rules 25. 1.5.1. In the preparatory phase of the facility should implement an expert evaluation of the geotechnical site construction and the potential danger to its surrounding urban areas and the geological environment (based on an analysis of archival materials Mosgorgeotrest and other organizations) and, if necessary, develop recommendations for adjusting the location of the object. 1.5.2. In preparing town planning justification is considered organizations listed in Rules 24 and the Rules 25, coordinated program of engineering researches for the development of pre-(urban), documentation, and conducted examination of the technical report on the engineering survey. 1.5.3.
Following the approval of urban studies: A and coordinated program of engineering research to develop a project assessing the impact of object under construction on surrounding buildings and the geological environment, compiled programs on monitoring and survey surrounding buildings. 1.5.4. In the process of project development: examination of reports by engineering survey and inspection of the surrounding buildings, consider and agree on a program to monitor construction; by examination of project documentation of technical solutions and project construction organization (PIC) bases, foundations and underground structures, fences excavation project for the period construction, and developed with appropriate projects to strengthen the engineering defense. 1.6. When engineering survey, design and construction of tall buildings for each building should be scientific and technical support from specialized scientific organizations and drawing up the rules of certain types of work and monitoring its implementation. 1.7. To ensure the safety of tall buildings recommended in the documentation to develop a special section on field observations for the main load-bearing structures, including foundations, footings and underground elements of the building for the period its construction and operation.
Under the loading capacity means the wear resistance of the laminate in various operating conditions. In mid-to late nineties, when the laminate only began to be delivered to Russia indicated the number of revolutions – 8000, 12000, 15000, etc. This was the so-called Tabertest – took obrazivny circle and ground off the top protective layer laminate respectively, on how many revolutions it is destroyed, such an indicator and is assigned. But resistance to abrasion that is not all. It was necessary to take into account the impact resistance plates, impact resistance and resistance to gap, moisture and uninflammable and more than ten indicators that Tabertest not covered.
Gradually, all laminate manufacturers have shifted to a class load. Classification is approximately as follows: 21, 22 and 23 classes are suitable for use at home, 31.32 and 33 classes of loads are designed for use in both home and in the commercial sector. Accordingly, the more the latter figure, the stronger the material. Currently, laminate is no grade below 31 and notation on the package 23/31 or 23/33 involve the use of private sector default. 3. whether laying parquet floor heating? Yes, no problem.
hdf board, which is the base material is not suffers from even a fairly tangible and long-term warming, and unlike wood will not crack and warp as the parquet floor and did not come into disrepair. 4. thickness of the laminate is preferred – 8 or 12 mm? Single standard for the size and thickness does not exist, a laminate is produced with a thickness of 6 to 14 mm, depending on the manufacturer.