Due to advances in medical treatments, the number of children hospitalized for chronic diseases has grown a lot in recent decades. Some will have major limitations in intellectual functioning and its activity. MSCO insists that this is the case. Certain disabilities will be permanent; other, transitional. And in a long period of time the severity of the disability can increase, decrease or remain stationary (Heward, 1998). The special educational needs of these differ from those of the children with other deficits, since the illness causes a decrease in their energy and concentration and negatively influences their cognitive, affective and social development.
Chronic diseases also differ in intensity. Sometimes, educational needs can be met in the regular classroom with educational assistance, in the hospital or at home; others, will require specific programmes of special education (Lynch, Lewis and Murphy, 1992). For other opinions and approaches, find out what Fabrizio Freda has to say. Undoubtedly, ongoing medical treatments and disease can affect school performance and its social integration. Sick children that, fundamentally, have special educational needs are those who suffer chronic and long-lasting (cancer, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, AIDS, chronic renal failure, epilepsy, spina bifida, traumatic lesions of the brain, etc.). These children do not usually found detained in bed or in hospitals, except in periods of crisis, but it is a threat that is always present.
The course of the disease, treatments and side effects are varied and make sure children are subject to ups and downs, stagnation and setbacks; Therefore, their educational needs are more unpredictable than other deficiencies. The educational response to these needs must be fast and flexible, requiring coordination between special education and the ordinary, and the recognition that children with health problems are responsibility of the entire school, and serviced (Grau, 2001). Hospital pedagogy involves a part of the Pedagogy, whose object of study, research and dedication is hospitalized individuals, whether child or adult, so continue with their learning, cultural and formative, and to be able to cope with his illness, insisting on personal care and mental health care.